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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation Answer

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation?

The advantages of using parallel simulation is the tests can be run independently. The sample size is not costly to expand and real data is used so it allows verification to source documents.

The disadvantage could be the client’s software out preforms the auditor’s software or the auditors needs to be trained to understand the clients programs.

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The fourth amendment to the USA constitution protects people against warrantless searches and seizures Answer

The fourth amendment to the USA constitution protects people against warrantless searches and seizures. This protection, though applying to both arrests and seizures does not apply to the arrests with as force as to seizures. In the absence of certain exigent circumstances a warrantless search violates the fourth amendment. However, the warrant requirement is not strictly applicable in case of the arrests. It has been held by the US Supreme Court that a warrantless public arrest does not violate the fourth amendment. However, the court has left the discussion on a warrantless non-consensual entry into a private residence for the purpose of arrest open. In the United States V Watson case, the Supreme Court held that the fourth amendment allows for a public warrantless arrest even in the absence of exigent circumstances. It even reversed the Ninth Circuit holding. The Ninth Circuit court had held that the arrest was a violation of the fourth amendment because of the absence of warrant. The Supreme Court in this regard primarily relied on previous Supreme Court cases, common law and the federal and state statutes

In the Devenpeck et al. v. Alford case also the Supreme Court held that A warrantless arrest by a law officer is reasonable under the Fourth Amendment if, given the facts the officer knows, there is a probability to believe that a crime has been or is being committed. In the Dorman V United States case also the entry for arrest was found lawful by the Supreme Court, thereby creating certain exceptions to the general rule that warrantless entries to effect an arrest are unconstitutional. The entry in this case was found lawful, however pertaining to certain exigent situations. The opinion in this case listed six requirements which could be useful to determine if the need for a warrant can be dispensed with in a given case. These considerations included:

  1. gravity of the offense,
  2. reasonableness of the belief that the suspect is armed,
  3. clearness of the showing of probable cause,
  4. reasonableness of the belief that the suspect is on the premises,
  5. likelihood of escape
  6. peacefulness of the entry.

References:

O’Connor, D. (1978). Warrantless Arrests in Homes: Another Crisis for the Fourth Amendment. In FORDHAM URBAN LAW JOURNAL. Retrieved August 6, 2014, from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1120&context=ulj

 

 

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How would you determine the viral mechanism and product associate with the development of leukemia

  1. a) How would you determine which portion of the genome is associated with the development of leukemia?

The desired task could be accomplished with the help of tools and techniques relevant with genomics and proteomics. For instance, since virus is not able to generate Leukemia in the absence of a particular genomic fragment thus, this fragment must be linked with infection. The exact composition as well as position of this segment in virus could be identified via nucleotide sequencing and alignment techniques like BLAST and Clustal W.

Conversely, in vitro techniques related with the same purpose include Sanger (dideoxy) method, Maxam-Gilbert (chemical cleavage) method, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). After sequencing, the fragment could be mutated at various locations through site-specific mutagenesis technique and thus mutated gene might be introduced into a range of host cells with the help of suitable vectors. Via comparative analysis of proteins produced by the host cells and their relevancy with infection (if any), the exact genomic sequence (present on that 20% genomic fragment) leading towards infection could be identified.

  1. b) How would you determine the viral mechanism and product associate with the development of leukemia?

Infection caused by virus can be recognized by analyzing the sequence of viral protein, its folding pattern, and through recognition of (i) its receptor, (ii) protein-receptor interaction mechanism, (iii) factors promoting/ inhibiting the interaction, and via (iv) detecting the signaling pathway (s) relevant with viral infection. All above tasks could be performed through implementing suitable strategies shaped for evaluation of interaction between protein and its receptor (like protein-binding assay) and for examination of signaling pathway (s)

 

activated by it. For example, novel NMR spectroscopic technique can be applied to accomplish this mission which may recognize such binding events and could generate resonance signals of ligand as well as protein. Besides, fluorescent nano-sensors could also solve this purpose.

References

Anderson, R., King, A. D. & Innis, B. L. (1992). Correlation of E protein binding with cell susceptibility      to dengue virus infection. Journal of General Virology. 73; 2155-2159.

Cohen, M. S. (1982). Epidemic hemorrhagic fever revisited. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 4; 992-995.

Gonzalez, S. F., Shope, R. E., Calisher, C. E. & Nathanson, N. (1982). Characterization of monoclonal        antibodies against the G1 and N proteins of La Crosse and Tahyna, two California serogroup    bunyaviruses. Virology. 120; 42-53.