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## You just purchased a bond that matures in 5 years. The bond has a face value of \$1,000 and has an 8% annual coupon. The bond has a current yield of 8.21%. What is the bond’s yield to maturity Answer

You just purchased a bond that matures in 5 years. The bond has a face value of \$1,000 and has an 8% annual coupon. The bond has a current yield of 8.21%. What is the bond’s yield to maturity?

Ans:

 Years to Maturity 5 Annual Payment \$80.00 Current price \$974.42 Par value = FV \$1,000.00 Going rate, rd =YTM: 8.65% Annual Payment \$80.00 Current price \$974.42 Current yield: 8.21%

Bond’s yield to maturity = 8.65%

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## In China, many people are removing their money from the state banks and lending it out themselves Answer

In China, many people are removing their money from the state banks and lending it out themselves. The interest rate earned in a state bank account is about one-half the rate of inflation. On the other hand, loaning money to friends, relatives and, even unrelated entrepreneurs can often earn the investor double or more over the inflation rate. The gray market, an underground network of investors and private businesses, moves the cash from lenders to businesses. Judge whether marketing occurred in this situation and justify your conclusions. Appraise the effectiveness of government regulation in controlling markets.

Four factors that is required for marketing to occur. (1) There must be two or more parties with unsatisfied needs. The lenders want to receive a higher interest rate on their funds and the businesses need short-term loans. (2) There must be a desire and an ability to satisfy those needs. The lenders want to receive a higher interest rate on their funds and the businesses need short-term loans. The money is available, since the lenders removed it from the state banks. (3) There must be a way for the parties to communicate. Word-of-mouth from the gray market, an underground network, allows communication between the lenders and businesses. (4) There must be something to exchange. Cash was exchanged in the form of loans, repaid with interest. So, we see that marketing did occur.

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## Julia visits her local grocery store to buy a jar of jam. She is overwhelmed to see the twenty-four varieties Answer

17.6 Julia visits her local grocery store to buy a jar of jam. She is overwhelmed to see the twenty-four varieties shown in Figure 17.3 there.

Suppose she makes her decision by evaluating every pairwise comparison among the twenty four varieties. How many comparisons does she have to make, and how long will it take her if she requires 1 second for each comparison?b. Suppose she uses a different system for making her decision. First, she considers each of the separate categories separately and m the pairwise comparisons just within the category to find the best. Then, she takes the best from each category and makes all the pairwise comparisons among them. Has she reduced the number of comparisons and total decision time using this system?

Ans:

Each variety of the jam would need to be compared with other 23 varieties and so the nos. of comparison would be = 24*23In this, we are counting twice for each bar of jam so we would need to divide by 2 to arrive at the total nos. of comparisons.So, total nos. of comparisons = 24*23/2 = 23 * 12 = 276 nos. of waysTime taken to make all comparisons = 276 * 1 = 276 seconds.

Different categories that are:Sugar-free – Grape   = 4pairwise comparisons just within this category = 6Sugar-free – Orange   = 2pairwise comparisons just within this category = 1           Sugared raspberry Organic – 2pairwise comparisons just within this category = 1Sugared raspberry Non -Organic – 4pairwise comparisons just within this category = 6

Total Decision Time in this case = 63 Seconds

So, Total nos. of pairwise comparisons in this case = 27 + 36 = 63 Nos.

Total Nos. of pairwise comparisons between the categories to get the best jam = 9*8/2 = 36

Nos. of categories = 9

Total Nos. of pairwise comparisons within the category = 6+1+1+1+10+0+1+1+6 = 27 Nos.

pairwise comparisons just within this category = 1

Sugared Orange Non – Organic – 2

pairwise comparisons just within this category = 0

Sugared Orange Organic – 1

pairwise comparisons just within this category = 10

Sugared Grape Non – Organic – 5

pairwise comparisons just within this category = 1

Sugared Grape Organic – 2

pairwise comparisons just within this category = 1

Sugar-free – Raspberry   = 2

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## Classification of Costs – BE 5-1 Answer

Classification of Costs – BE 5-1

From the given table, indirect labor can be classified as a variable cost. This is because it increases in proportion with an increase in activity level. Specifically, when production is 2000 units, indirect labor costs are \$10,000 and when production increases to 4,000 units, indirect labor increases to \$20,000.

Supervisory salaries are fixed costs because they do not change with changes in the activity level. For instance, supervisory salaries are \$5,000 when production is both 2,000 and 4,000 units.

Maintenance costs are variable costs. These costs changes from \$4,000 to \$6,000 when the production increases from 2,000 units to 4,000 units.

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## The company “23 and me” have to get FDA approval for their genomic analysis service Answer

Should the company “23 and me” have to get FDA approval for their genomic analysis service? The answer should be 1 page long with all the work shown.

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## Explain why you think this Classical music form may be satisfying for both 18th century and contemporary listeners Answer

The first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor is based on variations on a three-note motif. Explain why you think this Classical music form may be satisfying for both 18th century and contemporary listeners – and whether it was enjoyable for you.

Mozart was considered a child prodigy, performing throughout Europe. Cite your view on the notion of the child star and the impact of early success on a person who shows exceptional talent or genius. Explain whether you think Mozart’s struggle with sustained success in adulthood was a product of this phenomenon.

Upon listening to the first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40, I immediately recognized it. It is one of Mozart’s more famous pieces of music, and indeed one of the more famous pieces of music that has survived into the modern era. It is a piece I have heard often before, and I like it well. I can recall hearing this piece of music in advertisements for luxury cars and various other upscale items in television commercials. This piece of music, like so many pieces of music that linger in people’s memories, is a complex composition that is founded on a rather simple structure, in this case three notes. This elaboration on a foundation of simplicity has always been a theme of memorable pieces of music, and has endured to become one of the main tenets of contemporary music in our time. Today, composers and arrangers seek to find ways of tying their works to simple foundations, as time has proven that the human ear is drawn to such elements. Repetitions of simple sound patterns, even when covered with other elements, is a fundamentally attractive characteristic of music. Modern music relies on repeated structures in the bass instruments and in the rhythm instruments in order to provide the consistent foundation from which other instruments can take off and illustrate themselves. Whether modern vocal pieces, electronic music, rap and hip-hop, or even jazz, the fundamental facets of combining repeating patterns of simple sounds with creatively varying sounds from other sources which take off from and ultimately return to those same fundamental patterns form the basis for music which western civilization deems memorable and desirable.

Mozart was an 18th century exponent of a condition which has become considerably more frequent, as well as more tragic, in the ages since. More recent history has shown us that when humans become the center of large-scale attention and fame, along with all of the associated facets that come with those, they can find themselves developing into adults amidst a set of circumstances that are typically unhealthy and generally untenable over extended periods of time. Mozart produced and performed music which made him famous early in his life. This talent led him into fame and fortune at that early stage. That fame and fortune set a precedent for him, one which would prove impossible for him to exceed, or even maintain, in adulthood. Whether it was because he had a fixed amount of music in him to create, or because the sum of his experiences in childhood ultimately stunted his ability to evolve along the same trajectory into adulthood, the fact is that Mozart’s output as a composer and performer declined after his twenties. Certainly, outside factors contributed to this decline in popularity (i.e. wars in Eastern Europe shrank the amount of money available to his aristocratic patrons to spend on music), but this also reverberated in its effect on Mozart, as his loss of income ultimately fueled his growing depression, which in turn affected his ability to successfully create music. It must surely have weighed on Mozart in his adulthood to have been introduced and promoted as “the great” or “the prodigy”, since he knew that the accomplishments that had earned him those laurels had happened so long before. For so many who achieve stardom in childhood, it seems that the shadow cast by the greatness of their early life tends to leave their adulthood in a fairly bleak state. It would seem the same happened to Mozart.

Kemp, L. (2003, 10 11). Discovering Music – Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor (K.550). Retrieved 10 21, 2013, from Discovering Music – BBC Radio 3: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00blgrb

Tarantino, T. (2012). Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony, no. 40 in G minor. Retrieved 10 21, 2013, from Todd Tarantino: http://toddtarantino.com/hum/symphony40.html

The first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor is based on variations on a three-note motif. Explain why you think this Classical music form may be satisfying for both 18th century and contemporary listeners – and whether it was enjoyable for you.

Mozart was considered a child prodigy, performing throughout Europe. Cite your view on the notion of the child star and the impact of early success on a person who shows exceptional talent or genius. Explain whether you think Mozart’s struggle with sustained success in adulthood was a product of this phenomenon.

I particularly liked the piece Allegro Molto performed by Mozart. I feel as though the piece had a modern tempo and composition. With that said I feel his success is partially due to his innovation and ability to think outside of the box. He was one of the first to fully incorporate a clarinet into an orchestra. Furthermore, his music was very different from the aesthetics of Roccos’ music. He was known to take advantage of different themes over time and seeks clarity and order while using different forms of melody. Mozart’s music was very clear, symmetrical, balanced and unified.

Mozart’s musical career started at a very early age. He wrote his first musical composition at the age of six. Hayden even told Mozart’s father that he was the best composer of his time. As Mozart got older he became depressed and went through some life struggles. Because of this it seemed as though he was not able to secure a job until later in life. The textbook states that he was forced to teach composition in order to have additional income. I believe that this could have been what proved to others that he did have skill as this would have led to his famous performances.

Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education. Retrieved October 7, 2013

The first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor was originally composed in 1788. Mozart composed this symphony to perform in England, however this never really happened. This symphony is one of Mozart’s most famous symphonies, although it is not clear whether Mozart actually ever performed it. The first movement of Mozart’s Symphony No.40 in G Minor was based upon the variations on a three-note motif. This first movement is really stands out as fast and full of enjoyful movement. This classical music form could be satisfying for both 18th century and contemporary listeners because this music is a combination of high pitch and louder sound. This piece of music has many instruments being played. The major and minor scale in the music relates to both happy and sad moments.

Mozart came from a musical family. His father was an accomplished violinist and minor composer and his older sister was a fine pianist with whom the young Mozart toured Europe. Mozart composed music from the age of five and embarked on a three and a half year tour of Europe. Mozart wrote his first successful opera at age fourteen, which led to further commissions. Mozart is usually credited with having written forty-one symphonies. To me, it sounds strange that Mozart had to struggle with sustained success in adulthood. He was a child prodigy in performing throughout Europe and he showed his excellent performance from childhood. In his adulthood, his masterpieces must have been liked by many and so we can say that his sustained success in his adulthood was a product of his childhood phenomenon but it would little exaggerated to say that he struggled in his adulthood.

References

John J. Riech.(2009). Culture and Values. Wadsworth Publications of Data.

Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education.

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## Why do inventories cost so much to maintain? Provide some examples of how cost is associated with carrying an inventory Answer

Why do inventories cost so much to maintain? Provide some examples of how cost is associated with carrying an inventory. Is there anything we can do to lower this cost, and if so, what? In addition to the question above, explain how excess inventories can erode profitability.

Inventory costs can be categorized as follows:

Ordering Cost – Cost of procurement and inbound logistics costs form a part of Ordering Cost. Ordering excess quantity will result in carrying cost of inventory. Whereas ordering less will result in increase of replenishment cost and ordering costs.

Carrying Cost – Inventory carrying involves Inventory storage and management either using in house facilities or external warehouses owned and managed by third party vendors. Inventory management and process involves extensive use of Building, Material Handling Equipments, IT Software applications and Hardware Equipments coupled managed by Operations and Management Staff resources.

Inventory Storage Cost – Inventory storage costs typically include Cost of Building Rental and facility maintenance and related costs. Cost of Material Handling Equipments, IT Hardware and applications, including cost of purchase, depreciation or rental or lease as the case may be.

Cost of Capital/Interest Cost – This cost Includes the costs of investments, interest on working capital, taxes on inventory paid, insurance costs and other costs associate with legal liabilities.

A large inventory cost can result into higher tied up working capital which will mean that the funds that could have been used for some other business related profitable venture has been locked into inventory. A large inventory level result into higher interest cost, insurance cost and taxes for the business.

References:

http://www.managementstudyguide.com/inventory-costs.htm

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## Drawing a Card If one card is drawn from a deck, find the probability of getting these results Answer

1. Drawing a Card If one card is drawn from a deck, find the probability of getting these results.

Probability = Number of desired card / total number of cards

1. An ace: 4/52 = 1/13
2. A diamond: 13/52 = 1/4
3. An ace of diamonds: 1/52
4. A 4 or a 6: 8/52 = 2/13
5. A 4 or a club: (13+3)/52 = 16/52 = 4/13
6. A 6 or a spade: (13+3)/52 = 16/52 = 4/13
7. A heart or a club: 26/52 = 1/2
8. A red queen: 2/52 = 1/26
9. A red card or a 7: (26+2)/52 = 28/52 = 7/13
10. A black card and a 10: 2/52 = 1/26

1. Cards If 2 cards are selected from a standard deck of 52 cards without replacement, find these probabilities.

P(two cards) = P(first card) x P(second card)

1. Both are spades: (13/52)*(12/51) = 1/17
2. Both are the same suit: 4*(1/17) = 4/17
3. Both are kings: (4/52)*(3/51) = 1/221

1. Selecting Cards Find the probability of getting 2 face cards (king, queen, or jack) when 2 cards are drawn from a deck without replacement.

Total number of face cards in the deck = 3*4 = 12

Probability = (12/52)*(11/51) = 11/121

1. Senate Partisanship The composition of the Senate of the 107th Congress is 49 Republicans 1 Independent 50 Democrats A new committee is being formed to study ways to benefit the arts in education. If 3 Senators are selected at random to head the committee, what is the probability that they will all be Republicans?

P( 3 Senators) = P(1st senator) x P(2nd senator) x P(3rd senator)

P(3 republicans) = (49/100)*(48/99)*(47/98) = 0.11394

What is the probability that they will all be Democrats?

P(3 democrats) = (50/100)*(49/99)*(48/98) = 0.121212

What is the probability that there will be 1 from each party, including the Independent? Source: New York Times Almanac.

P(1 from each party) = 6*(49/100)*(1/99)*(50/98) = 0.01515

1. Winning Tickets If 50 tickets are sold and 2 prizes are to be awarded, find the probability that one person will win 2 prizes if that person buys 2 tickets.

P(win both prizes) = 2*(1/50)*(1/49) = 0.000816

1. Exercises 1 through 8 include questions that contain a flaw. Identify the flaw and rewrite the question, following the guidelines presented in this section.
2. Will you vote for John Doe for class president or will you vote for Bill Jones, the football star?

Irrelevant choices provided, as football star can’t be my class president.

Correction: Will you vote for John Doe for class president or Mike Taylor?

1. Would you buy an ABC car even if you knew the manufacturer used imported parts?

1. Should banks charge their checking account customers a fee to balance their checkbooks when customers are not able to do so?
2. Do you think that students who didn’t attend Friday’s class should not be allowed to take the retest?

There wouldn’t be a retest if students absent of Friday aren’t allowed.

Correction: Do you think that students who didn’t attend Friday’s class should be allowed to take a retest?

1. How long have you studied for this examination?

Examination is still to be conducted.

Correction: How long have you been studying for this examination?

1. Which artificial sweetener do you prefer?

No choices are provided to select one as a preference.

Correction: Which artificial sweetener do you like?

1. If a plane were to crash on the border of New York and New Jersey, where should the survivors be buried?

Dead should be buried, not the survivors.

Correction: If a plane were to crash on the border of New York and New Jersey, where should the dead be buried?

1. Are you in favor of imposing a tax on tobacco to pay for health care related to diseases caused by smoking?
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## Why is it important to follow a process model? Does it have any benefits Answer

Why is it important to follow a process model? Does it have any benefits?

Process Models are well defined processes and procedures that have been used repeatedly for the development of systems. Following one of these processes will help with the definition of what needs to be done, and how it should be done. Selecting the appropriate process model is also important since it can affect the duration of the development process and the overall cost. Process models like waterfall, Incremental-build, Evolutionary, Agile, and Spiral models, can help a software development team with the process of continuous integration, verification and validation, early defect detection, and the early warning processes of potential problems and issues that every project encounters

Software is just like building anything else in the world. To do it effectively and efficiently you need a process. Just like manufacturers have work instructions and procedures on how to build a product, software engineers also need a process to properly build the application. The main objectives of a process is to increase productivity, quality, and improving the workflow within and among tasks to make software development more efficient and more effective. Improved work processes raise the productivity and morale of software developers, which then gets passed on to satisfaction of users and customers.

Benefits:

Alignment

Control

Consistency

Better communication

In short, having projects run within pre-established methods that work increase the chances of project success.

Processing models are a set of standards that software engineers use in designing and coding their software. UML or Unified Modeling Language, can be considered a process model because it is the industry standard for modeling software systems.

How do process models help project align? Align with what? Strategic goals? Thoughts?

Process models help to align the project with business/project requirements. Projects will support strategic goals. Whether it’s a software project or remodeling a room you need a plan to do it. Process Models present steps you should take. Our organization is in the early steps of adopting a Scrum framework which, I believe, is one of the best for software development along with RUP. Granted I’m only basing that off of what I have learned and from what those that have done it told me. I personally have never worked on a software development project but I am ScrumMaster certified and have been through other Scrum training. From that training we used software development projects to practice and it just seemed to work well. I have also talked with Sr PM’s and they have stated the same thing.

What are some drawbacks or disadvantages of using a process model?

Processes and procedures serve as a guide for any implementation or project. Not having a defined process could lead to redundancy and an increase in overall project cost. One of the major disadvantages with a process model is that you cannot deviate from the defined process. You have to follow the defined process all the way out. Reducing redundancy saves time and money. Also, you are right about not being able to stop the process once it is started. When we first put our process together it was cumbersome and time consuming. No one liked it and it cause a lot of frustration.

What is another disadvantage of having a process model?

Process model obligates you to follow establish rules and criteria. Kinda like forcing you to follow the rules. in regard to the waterfall model specifically, here are a few disadvantages:

The biggest disadvantage is one of its greatest advantages. You cannot go back a step; if the design phase has gone wrong, things can get very complicated in the implementation phase.

Often, the client is not very clear of what he exactly wants from the software. Any changes that he mentions in between, may cause a lot of confusion.

Small changes or errors that arise in the completed software may cause a lot of problems.

Until the final stage of the development cycle is complete, a working model of the software does not lie in the hands of the client. Thus, he is hardly in a position to inform the developers, if what has been designed is exactly what he had asked for.

What are some drawbacks or disadvantages of using a process model?

Process models are specialized process, procedures, design and arrangements, and systemic procedures used to develop software products and services. However, the impact of global supply chains and outsourcing/off-shoring of software developments activities across the globe, much compartmentalization and different areas of quality assurance, engineering and human capital teams, technology and equipment, and entire systems/processes/quality assurance. and putting together has meant PROCESS MODELS ARE NOT ALWAYS NEEDED. In fact, the large complex software technology, systems, components, and products and services demanded these days may require hundreds if not thousands of software processes and sub processes as they through global supply chain before final development is released. The reliance on one or few models do not simply work and vast range of software/engineering/programming/architectural personalities, visions, leadership, style and approach, trust and risk management has meant process models are not always enforceable during the entire software development process. Both the public and private section have many hundred billions allocated for new software development products and services and now INFORMATION SECURITY THREATS AND RISKS has pushed new trends towards more confidential in house processes and models harder to crack than the mainstream practices. Its about protecting the secrets, competitiveness, control, and insider knowledge of software developments and to prevent leaks and breaches of very critical knowledge that could damage projects and sponsors for a very long time frame. Thus, reliance on process models are decreasing and now with declining software infrastructure as more large scale and critical operations go overseas, there is little software developers can use to ensure the models and processes are done correctly and effective for the software development. Its not an easy process and software developments need a broad and diverse range of high end, high tech, high infrastructure and human capital, and newest and most innovative processes for each stage and process of development is needed and not a very narrow and bland approach. No matter what process model used, it falls short and opportunities for small to medium size software developers and servicers is declining as they are being bought by larger firms or go under because they cant compete or do not have the resources to develop software that meets and exceeds what the market demands. The technology changes too rapidly, costs cant be kept under control, and better wages and opportunities at larger firms means attracting and retaining quality human capital is difficult.

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## MPS planners use what is referred to as time fences? What are they, and why are they used Answer

MPS planners use what is referred to as time fences? What are they, and why are they used? (Points : 20)

Ans: The inputs to MRP frequently change. This occurs in one of two ways: by recomputing the requirement and schedule periodically, often weekly, or via a “net change” calculation. Net change in an MRP system means the MRP system creates new requirements in response to trans-actions. However, many firms find they do not want to respond to minor scheduling or quantity changes even if they are aware of them. These frequent changes generate what is called system nervousness and can create havoc in purchasing and production departments if implemented. Time fences is particularly helpful when trying to reduce MRP system nervousness. Time fences allow a segment of the master schedule to be designated as “not to be rescheduled.” This segment of the master schedule is therefore not changed during the periodic regeneration of schedules.